What is typical speech and language development?

Here are a few speech, language and reading milestones to look for :

By 1 Year Old

Turns head when name is called
Uses at least two words meaningfully other than mama and dada
Babbles using several different consonant sounds such as d,t,m,b,n
Sometimes follows routine directions such as “get your shoes!”
Responds to “no”
Points to learn new words

By 2 Years Old

Strangers can understand around half of what toddler says
Understands simple questions such as “Where is mommy?”
Uses 2-3 word phrases such as “go up”, “block fall down” and “I want apple”
Uses around 200 words
Uses several social words such as “bye”, “hi”, “please” and “thank you”
Can use and understand 2-3 prepositions such as “in”, “on”, “under” and “off”

By 3 Years Old

Strangers can understand around 75% of what child says
Uses some grammatical markers such as present progressive “baby crying”, plural “socks”, past (over generalizes regular, such as “runned”)
Uses sentences 3-5 words long
Uses and understands simple “who”, “what” and “where” questions

By 4 Years Old

Strangers can understand around 90% of what child says
Can independently follow 3-step directions
Participates in rhyming games
Can use and answer “why” and “how” questions logically

By 5 Years Old

Uses many grammatically correct sentences
Attends to a simple story and answers questions about it
Retells a familiar story
Hears and understands most of what is said at home and school
Identifies letters/numbers
Has mastered most speech sounds but may still be learning to use some later developing sounds such as /r/, /th/, /s/, /ch/

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